I’ve been experimenting with voice memos to record myself discussing ideas and concepts, and I find it’s been a great way to reflect and decompress after an intense day of teaching. Here is one idea I’ve been tossing around in my thoughts.

It develops from last year in which I took a course on the evaluation of learning as part of the Provincial Instructor Diploma Program. We discussed the differences in the assessment of, for, and as learning. Here is a snapshot of these three categories:

  1. Assessment of learning: assessment which occurs after the learning activity. This is to see if the learner is completed the learning. Example: A final test scheduled at the end of a course after which the instructor marks
  2. Assessment for learning: assessment which occurs along the duration of the learning process, can be also known as formative feedback. This is to check in to see if the learner is on track or progressing. Example: Quizzes scheduled throughout a course in which the marks are reviewed by both the instructor and student shortly after the quiz is administered
  3. Assessment as learning: where the assessment itself forms the basis for further learning. Example: A final exam in which the instructor and student review the answers together, and which the student may engage in further discussion about the exam questions

A fourth category I propose is “assessment is learning.” In this category, the student is actively involved in the formation, or development, of the assessment itself. Now, this is not to replace the role or work of the instructor or facilitator, but rather to have the student actively apply information in a most engaging way – by testing themselves and others.

This utilizes 21st-century learning skills, in which information is readily available, and it is not memorization, but the application of information, which is key. Where assessment is learning, learning and assessment are intertwined and occur simultaneously with each other.

Last year, I observed this occurring naturally (and voluntarily) in my classroom. I had provided groups of students the opportunity to present assigned topics in any way desired. I was surprised by the results – on one day, one group decided to create a short pop quiz for the rest of the class; on a different day another group chose to make a crossword puzzle for everyone; and later on a third group happily formatted a Jeopardy PowerPoint template with questions to ask the remainder of class. Groups sometimes provided prizes for each other, and the Jeopardy even included matching attire and roleplay as Alex Trebek.

In order to help build this environment, it was crucial for me to first model these activities, and show students how these assessments were formulated. Prior to the students selecting these activities, we had practiced similar activities in class, or they had seen me engage in developing parts of these assessments on the spot. Another contributing factor to this was having a safe learning environment, in which the learners would not feel judged or ridiculed for taking a risk of doing something new. I think this was achieved in part by showing to the students the many experiments, risks and vulnerabilities I may sometimes take on as an instructor.

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Objective what is the context?

I am intrigued by the nature of learning, and what conditions are required in order for learning to occur. Therefore, for this post, I have chosen to explore the following quote: “Simply having experiences does not imply that they are reflected on, understood, or analyzed critically. Individual experiences can be distorted, self-fulfilling, unexamined, and constraining” (Brookfield, 2015, p. 12).

Brookfield explains, “Events happen to us but experiences – the meanings to how we understand events – are constructed by us as we make sense of these events” (2015, p. 12).

Reflection – so how can I relate?

I primarily instruct baking and cooking students. In the bakery lab, find it is common for many students to be incredibly fast with the ability to create significant quantities of product in a short period of time. However, sometimes students appear ‘stuck,’ and do not comprehend the reasons of why they are doing what they are doing, or why a product may be not turning out. Left unrecognized, I noticed this has occasionally resulted in students repeating the same mistakes over and over, becoming frustrated, and eventually losing interest in the learning process.

Interpretation – so what does this mean?

I believe learning is like a path. Learning occurs when the path can be examined by the learner. The full extent of learning happens when learners can recognize the beginning of the path, and how far they have come.

MacKeracher (2004) also describes learning as cyclical, in which the learner:

  1. Participates in experiences and gathers information;
  2. Makes sense of experiences by giving it meaning and recognizing patterns;
  3. Applies meanings in decision making and choices;
  4. Acts within a situation that involves the environment or people, testing decisions made; and
  5. Gathers responses from environment or people, thus providing information for a new learning cycle.

The cyclical of learning has also been described as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation  by Kolb (1984); and as disorientation, exploration, reorientation, then equilibrium  by Taylor (1979; 1987).

Abbey, Hunt & Weiser (1985) describe learners who do not move through all the phases of learning may become stuck (as cited in MacKeracher, 2004). This can be caused by moving too quickly through the learning cycle, or by skipping parts of the cycle. This would explain my experiences of students who become stuck.

A crucial element of the learning cycle is the gathering of feedback of experiences, whether it be from other individuals or the environment itself (MacKeracher, 2004). My own weakness is not providing enough ample time for the last phases of providing and gathering feedback – I myself often caught up in the ‘doing’ part of things.

However, there have been times, when finally upon receiving feedback from myself or others, the student has been able to become ‘unstuck’ and successfully move onto the next phase of the learning cycle. It appears to me students need appropriate time to form opinions and assign value to the events that happen to them.

Decision – what will I do?

In consideration of the importance of the entire cycle of learning, I will commit to the following:

  1. Bring awareness to the learning cycles. Consider implementing an activity to educate the students about the cycle of learning. When in the midst of a learning activity, discuss or invite the students to articulate what point of the learning cycle they may be experiencing. Plan lessons to reflect the cycle of learning.
  2. Schedule time for reflection during class. One of the greatest influences I have as an instructor in the learning environment is the use of time. Time for reflection can be quickly and frequently conducted using classroom assessment techniques such as minute papers or muddiest point (Angelo & Cross, 1993).
  3. Schedule reflection activities outside of class. Some examples of activities that can be used outside of the classroom can include journaling, blogging, podcasts, or discussion forums.
  4. Schedule reflection for the next day before the next topic is introduced. This also allows time for the student to process their thoughts and gather feedback from others before making a statement.

References:

Abbey, D.S., Hunt, D.E., & Weiser, J.C. (1985). Variations on a theme by Kolb: A new perspective for understanding counseling and supervision.  The Counseling Psychologist, 13 , 477–501.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: a handbook for college teachers (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Brookfield, S. (2006). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (2nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

MacKeracher, D. (2006). Making Sense of Adult Learning (2nd. ed., Repr). Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

Taylor, M. (1979). Adult learning in an emergent learning group: Toward a theory of learning from the learners’ perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto.

Taylor, M. (1987). Self-directed learning: More than meets the observer’s eye. In D. Boud & V. Griffin (Eds.), Appreciating adults learning: From the learners’ perspective (pp. 179–96). London: Kogan Page.

Objective – what are the facts?

For this post, I have chosen to explore the quote: “…there will be very few standardized practices that help students across the board learn essential skills or knowledge. An approach that one student finds particularly useful or congenial may well be profoundly unsettling and confusing to the student sitting next to her” (Brookfield, 2015, p. 17).

This quote indicates learning preferences and styles differ from student to student. Brookfield states there are few methods that can be sure to work for all. He cautions against using one approach or instructional style at all times, for all students.

Reflective – what experiences can be related?

In my own experience, the diverse learning preferences of students have been shown when I have asked for feedback on the effectiveness of my instruction. For example, in a class where role playing was used, some students indicated they disliked role playing, while other students in the same class indicated they enjoyed it. In another class when a large amount of handouts were used, comments included “too many handouts” to “love the handouts.”

I think back to my own experiences as a student in elementary, where we were asked to create a music video. I – being a more shy and reserved student – preferred to learn through reading and written tests. I found the making of a music video stressful and unfamiliar, while it was apparent to me other students were happy and excited to participate. Although as an adult I have since embraced making videos, I still remember my past feelings of discomfort. I recognize, even at a very young age, I had developed strong learning preferences.

Interpretive – so what does this mean?

It is important to vary learning activities, instructional styles and methods of delivery. In the past, numerous ways to categorize learners have been identified. However, my intention is not to categorize students, but rather to understand the different learning preferences and styles, and to adjust my own instruction in response to this. Here are a few styles and preferences as summarized by MacKeracher (2004):

  • Analytic & holistic cognitive styles (Entwistle, 1981; Miller, 1991);
  • Cognitive, affective, physiological, interpersonal learning styles (Keefe, 1987);
  • Field-dependent and field-independent learners (Witkin & Goodenough, 1977);
  • Language, numerical, and auditory-visual-kinesthetic learners (Suessmuth, 1985);
  • Introversion-extraversion, thinking-feeling, intuiting-sending and judging-perceiving personality styles (Myers, 1985).

The reading which has intrigued me the most are MacKeracher’s (2004) exploration of Kolb’s learning styles (1985), in which she summarizes:

  • Assimilative learners – prefer reading or lecture-style presentations of ideas
  • Convergent learners – prefer defining the learning task & objectives, setting clear goals, decision making and practical application
  • Accommodative learners – prefer doing things, taking risks and getting involved in new experiences
  • Divergent learners – prefer talking, sharing experiences, or brainstorming ideas

My own preferred learning style from Kolb’s model is primarily assimilative – I prefer learning by reading, taking notes, and listening to lectures. I agree with MacKeracher, “Facilitators tend to start with the activities that represent their preferred learning style on the assumption that this is the ‘best way to learn.’ […] The activity chosen as a starting point will affect the design of the remainder of the process” (2004, p. 87). I realize I may tend to operate in my preferred learning style, which may set the tone for the entire class.

I often express to students, the greatest learning occurs on the outskirts of our comfort zone – the more we spend time on the edges of our comfort zone, the more our comfort zone grows. The key for me to become a better-rounded teacher, and learner, is to become proficient in all styles of learning.

Decisional – what is my commitment?

I believe learning is diverse, and occurs differently for each student. In consideration of this, I will apply the following when teaching in the future:

  1. Allow opportunity for students to articulate their own unique learning preferences, strengths and weaknesses. This can be achieved through student questionnaires, discussion, self-reflection, or by introducing students to surveys such as the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb, 1985).
  2. Become aware of my own learning preferences, and practice using learning styles I may not be comfortable with.
  3. Use a variety of instructional strategies and activities in the classroom on a daily basis, and more importantly, to not repeat any one type of activity in excess. For example, a one hour class may include a short quiz, a hands-on activity, storytelling, and a brainstorming activity.
  4. Do not become discouraged at mixed feedback regarding the effectiveness of instruction from student questionnaires. Instead, I plan to embrace this as the diverse uniqueness of individuals, and really what makes teaching interesting and rewardingly challenging.

 

References:

Brookfield, S. (2006). The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (2nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Entwistle, N. J. (1981). Styles of Learning and Teaching: an Integrated Outline of Educational Psychology for Students, Teachers and Lecturers. Chichester; New York: Wiley.

Kolb, D.A. (1985). Learning style inventory. Boston: McBer & Company.

Keefe, J. W. (1987). Learning style: theory and practice. Reston, Va: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

MacKeracher, D. (2006). Making Sense of Adult Learning (2nd. ed., Repr). Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

Miller, A. (1991). Personality Types: A Modern Synthesis. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.

Myers, I. (1985). Gifts differing (7th ed.) . Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Witkin, H. A., & Goodenough, D. R. (1976). FIELD DEPENDENCE AND INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR. ETS Research Bulletin Series, 1976(1), i–78. http://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.1976.tb01098.x

There are many various pieces that lead to a successful lesson. In this post, I will explore some of these components and share some online resources I have found helpful in regards to each area.

Components I have chosen to explore include, but are not limited to: Bloom’s taxonomy, characteristics of adult learners, creating a positive learning environment, assessment, and instructional processes & strategies.


1. Bloom’s Taxonomy

The levels of learning in Blooms’ taxonomy is often used to differentiate between higher and lower order thinking. Simon Paul Atkinson has developed excellent visual representations of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy using updated language and interestingly, expanded on what he considers the controversial knowledge domain.

His graphics efficiently include learning outcomes, assessments forms, activities, and product evidence that support each level of Bloom’s taxonomy. I appreciate this information being presently in this condensed and useful manner, which allows for easy reference. I anticipate more information in the future will be presented in this refreshing way.

Link: https://spatkinson.wordpress.com/tag/blooms-taxonomy/


2. Characteristics of Adult Learners

Adult learners have varied learning styles and individual differences. The New Jersey Department of Education, as part of their Resource Manual for Intervention and Referral Services, have effectively summarized a variety of these differences: field independence/dependence, Kolb’s theory of learning styles, the 4MAT System, the traditional visual/auditory/kinesthetic dimensions, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

I particularly like the description of Kolb’s theory and 4MAT system, and find the suggestions on instructing each type learning style helpful. I can see myself applying these techniques in class. Also, the information on these learning styles help me better understand my own style preferences.

Link: http://www.ntuaft.com/TISE/IRS%20manual/innovative/cognitive_learning_styles.htm


3. Creating a Positive Learning Environment

In this poignant and inspirational video Rita Pierson describes with passion “the value and importance of human connection.”

Although her story involves educating youth, I find her ideas easily apply to persons of all age ranges. I agree wholeheartedly with Rita’s positive outlook. This video reminds me as an educator, we are also role models, mentors, and are integral in building the confidence and self-esteem of our learners.

Link: https://www.ted.com/talks/rita_pierson_every_kid_needs_a_champion


4. Assessment

Classroom assessment techniques, or CATs, are crucial to providing ongoing feedback to both the learner in their own performance, and feedback for the educator in the effectiveness of their teaching. In this five-page document, Kathryn Cunnigham has compiled fifty CATs from the widely referenced text “Classroom Assessment Techniques” by Angelo & Cross. Although more detailed information can be found in Angelo & Cross’ text, this short document is great for quick reference which can be used when selecting and comparing techniques for assessment.

Techniques include CATs for course-related knowledge and skills; learner attitudes, values, and self-awareness; and learner reactions to instruction.

Link: http://pages.uoregon.edu/tep/resources/newteach/fifty_cats.pdf


5. Instructional Process & Strategies

Instructional strategies refer to the actual methods, techniques or activities that are used to deliver course content. Although there are written lists and descriptions of instructional strategies readily available, I find the most efficient and memorable way to learn these strategies is to visually observe them.

This collection of videos produced by public media organization KET (Kentucky Educational Television) show examples of instructional strategies used in the classroom environment. These videos clips include examples of teachers using out-of-the-seat activities, debate, ‘I can’ statements, graffiti boards, graphic organizers, exit slips, plus more.

Link: http://ket.pbslearningmedia.org/collection/ketae/


I hope you find the above links helpful. For many more helpful resources, check out the timeline and posts to page on the School of Instructor Education Facebook page.

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I enjoyed the web-conference experience, I found it is the closest experience to meeting my learning partner in person. The face-to-face conversations were beneficial, and unlike other forms of digital communication such as email or text messaging, it was much easier to understand the context of information due to the ability to observe facial expressions, see the environment, and hear vocal variations.

Web-conferencing also fits well into today’s trends in adult education. It allows students and instructors to quickly interact with each other on a global scale. It is also relatively convenient, and can be done in the comfort of any place with an internet connection. After this experience, I may consider implementing web conferencing in my student’s assignments in the future.

Our shared topic for our assignment was on mental health of students in post secondary institutions. During our web-conference, we discussed our surprise at the amount of research available, and agreed there are support programs and services readily available at both our schools – the issue was more in connecting students to these programs and services.

We also agreed institutions could benefit from informing students of mental health help options available when students are in the application or admission stage, as well as a method to allow students to disclose if they have a mental illness early on.

I learned from my partner the availability of the Post-Secondary Student Mental Health: Guide to a Systemic Approach developed by the Canadian Association of College and University Student Services (CACUSS) and the Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA). This helpful guide suggests “a framework for addressing students mental health in post-secondary institutions.” (p. 4)

Another great resource my learning partner shared with me is Policy Approaches to Post-Secondary Student Mental Health, a Scan of Current Practice. This document examines social and legal contexts, trends and key issues in the United Kingdom and in Canada.

Although the stigma surrounding mental health is reducing, and resources are available for those that seek help, I feel we are only at the beginning and there is considerable room for growth.

References

Olding, M. & Yip, A. (2014). Policy Approaches to Post-Secondary Student Mental Health. OCAD University & Ryerson University Campus Mental Health Partnership Project. Toronto, ON: Author.

Canadian Association of College & University Student Services and Canadian Mental Health Association. (2013). Post-Secondary Student Mental Health: Guide to a Systemic Approach. Vancouver, BC: Author.

In my previous post, I mentioned some of the insights I gained in regards to mental health in student in post-secondary institutions. In this post, I will share some of the research I have come across that indicate the trends in regards to this topic.

As an instructor in Alberta, this study stood out to me: A Survey of Mental Health at Post-Secondary Institutions in Alberta, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25007278.

The survey was aimed at front-line workers that deal directly with students, and the goal was to assess the availability of mental services at post-secondary institutions in the province. A summary of their results include:

“All of Alberta’s post-secondary institutions were represented in the responses. Mental health initiatives and services are available, to varying extent, at all of Alberta’s post-secondary institutions. However, many institutions do not have initiatives and (or) services aimed at identifying students with mental health problems or policies for monitoring their mental health services. Additionally, smaller institutions are less likely to offer certain services (for example, gatekeeper training and campus medical services), compared with larger ones. Finally a systematic review or an evaluation of services appears to be infrequently conducted.” (pg. 250)

The study suggest trends are:

  • the majority of institutions have on-campus counselling, mental health awareness programs and medical services. Large institutions (10 000 or more students) tend to have more services compared to the small institutions (less than 2000)
  • there is an increased use of services
  • there is a lack of services or initiatives to allow students to identify if they have mental health problems
  • there is a lack of specific mental health strategies and a lack of review and assessment of services provided, “few institutions reported conducting recent research (that is, within 5 years or less) on student mental health. Among small institutions, 44% had recently implemented initiatives to improve mental health on campus but none had evaluated them.” (pg. 256)

The main trends I interpret from this survey is that post-secondary institutions are adopting a systemic approach and preventative action in regards to mental health issues in students. I agree there is growth in the area of mental health awareness, however specific strategies, policies and procedures are currently lacking.

To prepare myself to address these trends, I have become aware schools may be soon adopting strategies to directly address student mental health. Examples of such mental health strategies can be found at the University of Victoria and University of Toronto.

I agree the awareness surrounding mental health is improving. To support this as an instructor, I choose to continue to openly communicate about mental health, continue to educate myself signs of student distress, familiarize myself with services available on campus, and keep myself up-to-date on developing strategies.

Here are some other helpful resources for further reading:

References

Heck, E., Jaworska, N., DeSomma, E., Dhoopar, A. S., MacMaster, F. P., Dewey, D., & MacQueen, G. (2014). A Survey of Mental Health Services at Post-Secondary Institutions in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(5), 250–258.

An interesting assignment of the PIDP course was to select an agreed topic with a learning partner, research it, present our research to each other, and write about it in a blog. The topic we agreed upon is mental health. This post discusses the research I have found regarding mental health in students, and insights I have gained regarding the roles adult educators play on this topic. My learning partner also found some excellent research and resources, I encourage you to check my learning partner’s blog here.

I come from a family with a history of mental illness. This has brought me awareness of the signs of mental illness. This has also taught me the importance of maintaining mental health, and I have developed great empathy towards those struggling with mental health or mental illness in themselves or with loved ones. Mental health is not only part of my own well-being, it also affects the well-being of my family, students and peers.

I began this year opening each of my class with each individual filling out a survey about themselves, usually focused on their background experience related to the topic of the course, their preferred name, their preferred contact email, and so on. At the end of this survey, I include an optional space asking the students if there are any health concerns or conditions that may affect their learning.

In almost every class, at least one to two students have disclosed mental health related issues, the most common being anxiety and panic attacks. I have also had students with initially undisclosed concerns, but later surfaces as distress, insomnia, depression, or substance abuse. The amount of concern I have regarding these students in the learning environment is immense. Depending on the severity of the issue, these individuals may affect the overall group dynamics of the class, often impeding on a safe and comfortable learning environment.

Research

In my research, one Canadian website that stood out to me in regards to student mental health was from the University of Victoria. The University of Victoria website presents their resources in a clear, easy-to-navigate manner, directed towards the role of faculty. Some highlights of information provided includes a quick reference guide for assisting students in distress, procedures and practices for mental health support issues in the classroom, and mental health education and training programs.

Most post-secondary institutions do have mental health services and programs in place for students, however the extent of these resources vary (Heck et al., 2014), which I will discuss later in my next post. These resources are backed by the University of Victoria Student Mental Health Strategy for 2014-2017.

See the University of Victoria website section regarding Student Mental Health for faculty and staff at http://www.uvic.ca:8080/mentalhealth/faculty-staff/index.php

Insights on the Role of Instructors

Instructors are at the forefront of directly interacting with students. As instructors, our roles are not to be counselors, psychologist & psychiatrists. Instead, we are the gatekeepers to resources and information.

Some key insights I gained from the University of Victoria website on the role of instructors and mental health in students include the need to:

Be Informed of Policies, Procedures, and Services

  • Inform oneself of policies and procedures regarding non-academic misconduct and emergencies.
  • Be familiar with available campus mental health and counseling or support services, where to find them, and to refer students to them if they are willing.

Reduce Stigma & Promote Well-Being

  • Maintain open communication with students in regards to mental health and well-being.
  • Promote programs that support a positive community. For example, in our two year diploma program, we have a student club that allows students in various stages of the program to network and socialize with each other.
  • On a personal note, I believe it is important to be mindful of dialogue, especially terms such as “crazy” or “insane”. For example, I often hear the term schizophrenia or schizophrenic used loosely (and incorrectly) to describe an extreme or ‘split’ personality.

Know the Signs of Student Distress

In my next post, I will discuss some of my research on the trends of mental health support services for students in post-secondary institutions.

 

 References:

Faculty and staff – University of Victoria. (n.d.). Retrieved June 11, 2015, from http://www.uvic.ca/mentalhealth/faculty-staff/index.php

Heck, E., Jaworska, N., DeSomma, E., Dhoopar, A. S., MacMaster, F. P., Dewey, D., & MacQueen, G. (2014). A Survey of Mental Health Services at Post-Secondary Institutions in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(5), 250–258.

 

I instruct in a primarily face-to-face environment, and believe remembering names is a valuable tool when providing feedback or simply when speaking with learners. Recently, I have had the opportunity to instruct over a hundred students in the course of a year. I was grateful to come across this TED Talks video, which describes some excellent memorization techniques. I now use these techniques on a regular basis to help remember names:

Welcome to my blog. The purpose of this online journal is to document my journey through the Vancouver Community College Provincial Instructor Diploma Program.

I selected the name “Ingredients for Learning” because I believe a successful class or course requires various components in balanced quantities, similar to the ingredients to a recipe. Each one of these components, like ingredients, plays a special function or role.

My background is in baking and culinary background and I am presently an instructor in baking.

Here are my thoughts on a “recipe for class” I have been playing around with:

Recipe for Class

Yield: One 3-week daily class

Ingredients:

  • 1 pre-assessment written survey
  • 30 minutes of introductions of students and instructor
  • Housekeeping as required (fire exits/safety, etc.)
  • 30-60 minutes course expectations (schedule, contact information, objectives, evaluation breakdown)
  • 30-60 minutes of assignments explained
  • Daily formative feedback
  • Daily review
  • Daily breaks
  • At least 1 review from peers of work while in draft stage
  • 3 to 5 assessments
  • 1 to 4 suggested reading or interesting links
  • 1 to 4 short engaging videos
  • 1 to 2 role-play or case study
  • 1 to 4 student presentations
  • 1 to 4 instructor presentations
  • 1 to 4 carefully chosen instructor stories used as examples
  • 1 to 2 game-like activities
  • 1 to 4 guided note taking
  • 1 to 4 group discussions
  • 1 to 2 think-pair-share discussions
  • 1 to 4 self-quizzes
  • 1 self-evaluation or written reflection

Directions: Prepare learners by introducing them to each ingredient. Combine the above in small amounts over time in a classroom or lab setting using comfortable noise, light and temperature levels. Add in as many hands-on experiences as possible. Vary amounts of individual and group activities. Mix in a generous amount of humour where appropriate. Bake in an oven filled with patience and accountability. Cool, and encourage learners to reflect on their learning experience. Enjoy!